San Cristóbal,1 junio de 2018: Human mobility according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) is the "mobilization of people from one place to another in the exercise of their right to free movement (...) being a complex process and motivated by various reasons (voluntary or forced)” (OIM, 2012,p.17).Emigration has taken worrying dimensions in the case of Venezuela. The search for opportunities and better living conditions are encouraging Venezuelans to migrate to other countries in the continent and in Europe.We are observing a phenomenon of human mobility,which is characterized by being a complex process, and because the reasons to emigrate occur in two ways: the voluntaryor the forced one. The temporality goes from going to and coming from the border countries (especially Colombia) until the critical decision to leave the country for a long period.

Among the Colombian-Venezuelan border points that goes along the states of Zulia, Táchira, Apure and Amazonas, the busiest and most mobile one is that of San Antonio del Táchira (Venezuela), adjacent to the North of Santander Department (Colombia), whose capital is the city of Cúcuta.The reasons for crossing the border area are varied, ranging from the purchase of general supplies (food, medicines, and spare parts) to exodus to another country.It is important to mention that not all those who cross a border post are emigrants.Therefore the necessity to classify effectively the research on Venezuelan migration, who are the people who decide to migrate to another country, so you can determine the type of protection required by Venezuelans in this case, as well as adjusting future recommendations that culminate in public policies.

From the novel process of Venezuelan emigration, we could ask ourselves several varied questions: Who are emigrating and why? Expectations before leaving to another country? The age of migrants and their academic status? Who are left in Venezuela and under what conditions?In addition, migration reveals a series of affective, socio-cultural, anthropological, political and economic ruptures that can create and become a challenge, especially because it helps to visualize a new horizon in the country that attracts those who have migrated.Perhaps, an element of reflection on this unprecedented migratory phenomenon is the departure of highly qualified Venezuelans, which leaves us in conditions of vulnerability and fragility before the vertiginous social, technological and cultural changes generated worldwide.

Let us not forget that an "empty" country, that is, with high migration rates, is a fragile country.Then, we need to manage public policies that allow a dignified life in the country. So,beginning the construction of what was stated in the preamble of ourNational Constitution: "Relaunch the Republic to establish a democratic, participatory and protagonist, multi-ethnic and multicultural society and in a State of justice, federal and decentralized”, which“ensures the right to life, work, culture, education, social justice and equality without discrimination or any subordination" (National Constitution) (National Assembly).

This research paper describes the characteristics of the migratory phenomenon of Venezuelans, who crossed the border between San Antonio del Táchira (Bolívar municipality), and Ureña (Pedro María Ureña municipality) from Táchira state (Venezuela), to the registry of migratory control in the Colombian Immigration Office, located in La Parada (Villa del Rosario municipality), Norte de Santander Department (Colombia), from April 9 to May 6, 2018.It refers to Venezuelans who make a regular migration and want to migrate for not returning to Venezuela at least for now.

We can observe in our research paper, the socio-demographic profile of the Venezuelan emigrant; a possible demographic problem in Venezuela; aging of the population, Venezuelan states of origin; the previous decisions to be able to emigrate; the causes of Venezuelan emigration (psychosocial, economic, political); where to go and what awaits me?From the perspective of the emigrant, we may consider the remittances as help for those who stay in the country and, finally, the possible return to the country. The investigation culminates with a series of recommendations that can assertively respond to the growing phenomenon of the Venezuelans’ emigration process.

From this process of migration in Venezuela, it is important to highlight a world lesson: migration is a phenomenon that concerns us all. The best way to save the Venezuelans’ lives (international protection), and of thousands of other migrants, is giving example of humanity, solidarity and compassion.Our research is a contribution that can provide fundamental elements for the discussion of how to protect migrants by respecting their dignity and making their faces and voices visible.The challenge, and the task, is how forced migrants in democracies are totally protected.

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JRS VENEZUELA 

ENTRECULTURAS

UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR

UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DEL TÁCHIRA

MIGRACIÓN COLOMBIA 


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Venezuela